The Brazil – History

Brasil Colony

Escravos_capoeiraPedro Álvares Cabral claimed Brazil for Portugal domain in 1500. The colony was ruled the distance from Lisbon, which only in 1530 began the occupation of the territory. Previously, Portuguese ships reached the coast just to get the wood Pau-Brazil tree, which gave rise to the name of the country in exchange for simple objects which gave the Indians. After the occupation, the Portuguese Crown decided to divide the colony in pieces of land that were donated and the sugarcane plantations began to be realized for the export of sugar to the rest of Europe. All profits arising colony trade was automatically transferred to Portugal.

In the eighteenth century, after the discovery of the first gold mines, the king of Portugal tried to organize their extraction, since the sugar trade began experiencing a decline. The Golden age brought urban and cultural development to those areas of extraction and the capital was moved to Rio de Janeiro, reflecting the greater economic importance in the Southeast.

In 1808, Dom João VI and all the royal fled from Napoleon’s army and established the seat of his government in Rio de Janeiro. João VI returned to Portugal in 1821.

Brazil Empire

Independencia_RMoreauxThe son of King D. João VI declared Brazil’s independence on September 7, 1822, becoming Emperor of Brazil with the title of Dom Pedro I. Dom ePedro

The son of King John VI declared Brazil’s independence on Sept. 7, 1822, becoming Emperor of Brazil with the title of Dom Pedro I. Dom Pedro II, his successor, ruled from 1831 to 1889, when a republic Federal was established in a coup led by Deodoro da Fonseca, Army Marshal. Slavery had been abolished a year earlier by Princess Isabel, while his father, Dom Pedro II, was in Europe.

Brasil Republic

Brasilia, 25/03/2005. Foto: Jose Varella/CB. Politica. Foto do ex- Presidente Juscelino Kubitschek feita por Gervasio Batista.From 1889 to 1930, the government was a constitutional republic, with the presidency alternating between the states of São Paulo and Minas Gerais. This period ended with the presidency of Getulio Vargas, south, through a coup. Vargas remained in power as dictator until 1945. Between 1945 and 1961, José Linhares, Gaspar Dutra, Vargas himself, Café Filho, Carlos Luz, Nereus Ramos, Juscelino Kubitschek and Quadros were elected presidents. When Quadros resigned in 1961, Vice President João Goulart succeeded.

The year that Goulart was in power was characterized by high inflation, economic stagnation and growing influence politically radical individuals. The armed forces, seizing the moment of disorder, staged a coup on 31 March 1964. The coup leaders chose as president Humberto Castello Branco, followed by Arthur da Costa e Silva (1967-69), Emilio Garrastazu Medici (1969 -74) and Ernesto Geisel (1974-79), all of them senior officers of the army. Geisel began an economic openness that was continued by his successor General João Baptista Figueiredo (1979-85). Figueiredo not only allowed the return of political exiles or banned from political activity during the 1960s and 70s but also allowed them to apply for state and federal offices in 1982.

tancredoAt the same time, an electoral college composed of all members of Congress and six delegates chosen from each state continued to choose the president. In January 1985, the electoral college voted for Tancredo Neves, the PMDB opposition to president. However, Neves became ill in March and died a month later. Vice President José Sarney, became president after the death of Tancredo.

The Brazil completed the transition to a popularly elected government in 1989, when Fernando Collor de Mello of votes in the first direct election in 29 years. In 1992, a major corruption scandal led to his impeachment and resignation from office. The Vice President Itamar Franco took his place and by the end of Collor mandate, in October 1994, when Fernando Henrique Cardoso was elected with 54% of votes. Cardoso took office in January 1995 and followed a program of ambitious economic reforms. He was reelected in 1998 for a second four-year term.

lula_fhcLuiz Inácio Lula da Silva, know as Lula, was elected in 2002, after four presidental campaigns without success. He was re-elected in 2006 with a mandate until 2010. Former trade union leader, he is the first president Ex-líder sindical, ele é o primeiro presidente da classe operária. Desde que assumiu a presidência, Lula tem seguido um pacote fiscal prudente, mantendo a austeridade fiscal do governo anterior e combinando-a com programas sociais de redistribuição de renda.

Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva, known as Lula, was elected in 2002 after four presidential campaigns without success. He was re-elected in 2006 with a mandate until 2010. Former trade union leader, he is the first president of the working class. Since assuming the presidency, Lula has followed a prudent fiscal package, while maintaining the fiscal austerity of the previous government and combining it with social income redistribution programs.

dilmaIn October 31, 2010, the presidential candidate Dilma Vana Rousseff was elected with almost  foi eleita com quase 56 milhões de votos e se torna a primeira mulher Presidenta da República Federativa do Brasil. Ex Ministra-Chefe da Casa Civil, Dilma coordenava o trabalho do Ministério desde 2005. A gestão de Dilma se iniciou dando continuidade à política econômica e social do Governo Lula. As ações mais recentes do Governo Dilma são marcadas por fortes políticas públicas, demissões de Ministros e índice significativo de popularidade da Presidente.

In October 31, 2010, the presidential candidate Dilma Vana Rousseff was elected with almost 56 million votes and becomes the first woman President of the Federative Republic of Brazil. Former Minister-Chief of Staff, Dilma coordinated the work of the Ministry since 2005. Dilma management began continuing the economic and social policy of the Lula government. The latest actions of the Dilma government are marked by strong public policies, resignations of Ministers and significant index of popularity of President.